Distilleries are one of the important as well as most polluting industries. India alone has 300 distilleries that annually produce over 2 billion liters of ethanol. Alcohol is an essential ingredient in many process industries such as chemical, pharmaceutical, plastic, beverage, perfume, and food. Due to its increasing demand, distilleries are growing at a fast pace as an industry. For a successful distillery to function, one of the important pieces of equipment required is the steam boiler.
Distilleries these days rely mostly on cereals, molasses, potatoes, and other agro products in producing alcohol. Let us have a look at the various stages of processes carried in the distillery industry.
Stages of Processing Drinks/Spirits in Distilleries:
Beverages require ethyl alcohol for its production and for extracting aroma in the resultant drinks. Ethyl alcohol, in turn, needs the fermentation of molasses for its production. Molasses are, in fact, the outcome of sugar processing operations that are dark red and of acidic nature with a 6.8 to 8.5 pH range. The fermented molasses are further processed, in the distillation that requires steam on a large scale. The processing in distillery includes two stages: Fermentation and Distillation.
The molasses collected are diluted with water in a tank and later on, proceed with yeast propagation and fermentation. The dilution ratio to maintain sugar levels, however, varies in different stages. It is 8% to 9% for yeast propagation and 16% to 18% for fermentation.
As the name suggests, yeast propagation utilizes yeast for the fermentation process. In this stage, yeast cultivates or expands itself by being fed to a pre-fermenter and administered with diluted molasses. Yeast propagation requires oxidative conditions and controlled temperature.
The fermentation process occurs in the fermenter under monitored conditions, wherein around 25% of the fermenter is filled with diluted molasses and pre-fermenters yeast. It is administered with various chemicals like enzymes, urea, biocide, and sulphuric acid, that are monitored and controlled at a pre-determined level. Coldwater is added in the fermentation process that takes as long as 24 hours to accomplish. The yeast sludge, molasses, and solids accumulated in fermentation are separated as solids and liquids through a high-speed centrifuge machine, and the liquid is sent further for distillation.
The distillation process consists of several stages in which the fermented liquid is preheated in two stages to get rid of volatile properties and sent to the analyzer column. Analyzer column functions under vacuum to destroy any likely scaling. The resultant liquid, after vaporization, proceeds with a pre-rectifier, to further concentrate the alcohol and remove impurities. Alcohol is concentrated again in the second rectifier and eliminates sulphuric properties. Lastly, the alcohol/drinks are cooled in the condenser.
Role of Steam Boilers in Distilleries:
As mentioned, steam boilers are unarguably crucial for distillery industries to perform various operations. Let us take a detailed look at the uses of steam boilers for distilleries.
Requirement of Hot Water:
The distilling process depends on an ample amount of hot water. Distilleries need water to be heated at different temperatures as per the drink or spirits being processed. Therefore, it is important to ensure that the steam boilers used for the process are of superior quality that can be controlled and monitored with precision.
Flavor and Aroma in Drinks/Spirits:
The amount of steam generated from steam boilers must be exact to ensure that the flavors and aroma of the produced drinks and spirits are as intended.
Disinfection and Sterilization:
Distilleries must be sanitized regularly to ensure hygiene and safety. Steam plays a vital role in disinfecting the utensils and other equipment used for the distillation process before it is utilized for consequent operation.
Controlled Heating of Premises:
Distilleries need steam boilers that can heat the specific regions as required. There are certain areas in a distillery that need to be heated uniformly for the distillation process to take place.
What to look for in a steam boiler for the distillery industry?
The processing operations in distillery industries are of longer duration. Therefore, it is essential to ensure that the steam boilers used in distilleries include the following factors:
Since steam boilers are operated constantly in distilleries, it needs to be highly efficient and of world-class quality to provide the best results.
Reliable and Long-lasting:
Steam boilers that are reliable ensure the safety of the operating staff of the processing plant. Similarly, boilers must be long-lasting to endure the various operations for distillation.
Reduced Greenhouse Emission:
Distillery industries produce an abundant waste during processing, with slop being the major pollutant after distillation. 1 liter of ethanol produces around 10 to 15 liters of spent wash that is highly toxic for the environment. Therefore, while choosing a boiler manufacturer, ensure that the steam boiler offered releases minimal greenhouse emissions.
Rakhoh is one of the leading boiler manufacturer in India, catering to more than 20 industries that include distillery for more than 38 years. Our steam boilers are highly efficient and reliable that ensure effective combustion with various types of fuels. Our Membrane X and Bi-Drum/D Type/Power X are the preferred models for distillery industries.
Steam Boilers play a major part in any processing industry. It is an unarguable fact that they are the backbone of the dairy and milk processing industries and require to be; highly efficient, resilient, and preferably compact for seamless operations. Boilers in the dairy industries mainly perform the processes of milk pasteurization and Ultra Heat Temperature (UHT) to ensure that the milk is safe for consumption and free from harmful bacteria for optimal shelf life. The milk processing plants utilize steam for processing and pasteurizing raw milk and dairy products under heat treatment. It leads to the process and production of various dairy products such as milk powder, yogurt, cheese, condensed milk, skimmed milk, butter, ghee, and cream.
India is the world’s largest dairy industry producing over 187 million tons of milk. It is therefore natural to conclude that India is the largest milk producer and consumer in the world. Milk and milk products have an imperative place in Indian cuisine. The North Indian population largely resorts to milk processed items such as cheese, ghee, and cottage cheese/paneer for their cooking, while the South Indian population uses milk and yogurt in their traditional dishes. Milk is a staple in the religious practices and ceremonies in India and an essential ingredient for Ayurveda medicinal purposes.
Use of Steam Boiler in Dairy Industries:
Boiler for the milk industry is a crucial tool to ensure that the raw milk does not contain any harmful bacteria such as pathogens. Steam boilers are used for processing raw milk under high temperatures to ensure that it is safe for usage and other milk processing operations.
Raw milk processing takes place through the following procedures:
Pasteurization is a process where the temperature of the raw milk is increased to around 212 degrees Fahrenheit to assure that all the harmful bacteria that may cause harm to the milk are neutralized.
Ultra Heat Temperature (UHT):
Ultra Heat Temperature or UHT is the process that increases the temperature and sterilizes the milk product over 275 degrees Fahrenheit for around 5 seconds. The process ascertains the complete removal of the bacterial spores.
Apart from these, boiler for milk dairy generate steam for the purpose of sterilizing the boiler and equipment involved during the milk processing operation and heating the dairy plant itself to ensure that there are not any kinds of bacteria present in the processing operation.
Factors to Consider while selecting Boiler for Milk Industry and Milk Processing Operation:
Although demands may slightly vary in different processing plants, some of the important and unavoidable factors to keep in mind while choosing a boiler for milk dairy industry are:
Resilient and Flexible to handle fluctuating load:
Most milk processing plants operate for long hours in a day. Therefore, the steam boilers must be reliable and flexible enough for managing the on-off operations in the processing units easily and swiftly. Boiler for milk dairy must be highly efficient as the dairy industry demands and operates with precision in steam and temperature.
Compact in design and size:
Although it may not be an essential requirement for the dairy industry, it is advisable and prudent to opt for compact steam boilers. It takes less footprint and leaves room for other equipment that may facilitate the processing operation further.
Sustainable and Environment Friendly:
Dairy industries use boilers on long cycles that means that they function for a longer duration. It leads to a high level of pollution that causes harm to the climate. It is, therefore, important that the boilers are environmentally friendly and contribute towards sustainable development.
Cost-effective and Economical:
As already mentioned, boilers are operated with high frequency in milk processing plants. Considering the high scale consumption of milk globally, steam boilers are required to be economical and cost-effective to produce and supply milk and milk products in the market at affordable prices without bringing loss in the processing plant itself. Because of these reasons, it is wise to select boilers that are cost-effective and work with different fuels as per the availability.
Needless to say, a boiler for milk dairy should be highly efficient and durable to ensure the smooth functioning and maintenance of the dairy industries.
Rakhoh Boilers, with more than 38 years of experience, manufactures and installs highly effective, efficient, and long-lasting steam boilers in the dairy industries. Along with that, Rakhoh’s skillful and dedicated team works tirelessly to provide you with the best maintenance service and upgrades in the boiler for the milk industry.
As of 2020, India is the most self-sufficient milk producer in the world, with about 4.2 % of India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) falling under the dairy industry along with export to countries such as Bhutan, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Egypt at the value of US$186.71 million or Rs.1341.03 Crore.
Tea is a staple beverage all over the world, especially in India. The refreshing drink is preferred and loved by many in various forms for centuries. Therefore, tea processing needs care and precision to obtain perfect and aromatic brewed tea for consumers. Steam Boilers are highly important in the tea industry as steam plays a crucial role in the various process operations.
In earlier years, tea was also utilized for medicinal purposes. It is consumed as fermented with ‘black tea,’ non-fermented with ‘green tea’ and semi-fermented with ‘oolong tea’, which is mainly consumed in China and Japan. Fermentation is a paramount process in tea processing as it ensures the quality, strength, aroma, and color of the tea produced.
There are around 34 countries globally that produce tea extensively. Countries of India, Sri Lanka, and China are leading tea producers in Asia, whereas Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Malawi are the major African countries known for tea cultivation.
Stages in Tea Processing:
The tea process consists of drying the tea leaves collected from the tea plant named Camellia Sinensis. The leaves are processed into dried tea leaves. It is imperative to control the moisture content and temperature of the tea leaves, failing which, would result in the growth of fungi on the leaves that would make it unsuitable for consumption. While the tea leaves are processed into the brewing tea, it requires steam at a determined temperature. Among the various processes carried in the tea industry, two of the most important ones are the withering and drying process. Let us have a look to know about both the processes in detail.
Tea leaves, when brought from plantations, include moisture content in it that has to be removed. The withering process eliminates partial moisture content from the leaves before it is transferred for subsequent operations. Withering is the most extensive process operation in the tea industry as it requires approximately 50% of the thermal energy of steam boilers and 40% electricity of the process plant.
Tea drying is the second process in tea factories after withering. The process requires around 40% of the thermal energy from the steam boiler and 20% of the factory’s electricity. Once the fermentation process is carried, the tea leaves are subsequently transferred, for the drying process in the drying room. Over there, the fermented leaves are placed on the trays of a dryer. It is heated at a temperature ranging between 200°F and 220°F to eliminate the remaining moisture content from the leaves.
Steam Boilers in Tea Factories:
Steam boilers are crucial to successfully accomplish the withering and drying process in the tea process plants as it requires an abundant amount of steam. The withering and drying process alone requires 90% of the tea factory’s total heat, and therefore, the steam boilers installed at the processing plant must be highly efficient and durable. Since both the processes consume a high amount of energy, boiler manufacturers suggest a few methods that assist in reducing the energy consumption such as:
1. Fan and warm air should be utilized at minimal levels.
2. Assess and maintain fan blade positioning
3. Ensure that heat exchangers are clean and well-maintained
4. Spread tea leaves uniformly to minimize air resistance
5. Place air dampeners parallel to the airflow
6. Regularly check and maintain fans and motors from boiler manufacturers
7. Make sure that the steam pipes are properly insulated
8. Clean the equipment and fans after operations
9. Place air dampeners at an appropriate angle between the wet end and the dry end of the dryer.
10. Control and Monitor the air intake
11. Do not open the flow control dampeners unnecessarily
12. Note the temperature of tea leaves placed in dryers to administer the required amount of steam
13. Ensure that all the machinery are functioning properly under the guidance of the boiler manufacturer
14. Regular servicing and maintenance of steam boilers from the boiler manufacturer
Why Choose Rakhoh Boilers for the Tea Industry?
Rakhoh is a trusted brand as a boiler manufacturer since its inception in 1983. We have always strived and successfully manufactured industrial steam boilers of premium quality that are durable and safe. Catering to more than 20 industries, we understand the needs and demands of different industries and provide our best services with steam boilers and thermal solutions. We have installed steam boilers, and our Bi-Drum model is preferred in various tea factories in India and abroad.
Boilers being a crucial part of the processing industry, steam boiler manufacturers strive to supply the industry with boilers that are efficient, cost-effective, and long-lasting. The rubber industry requires highly efficient and sturdy boilers to ensure the smooth processing of raw rubber into the final product used extensively for many purposes.
Rubber is utilized in many industries and fields, serving different purposes. The most important among them are rubber tyres in vehicles. Tyres are responsible for the balance and carrying the weight of the concerned vehicle. Therefore, the rubber for tyres must be of supreme and sturdy quality. Apart from tyres, it is used for machinery, medical, construction, mining, electronic devices, and household equipment.
Rubber can be found and manufactured in two forms that are, Natural Rubber and Synthetic Rubber. With the processing operations, it is manufactured into rubber products.
Difference between Natural Rubber and Synthetic Rubber:
Natural Rubber is latex that is a sap-type milky material found in more than 2,500 plants. Latex for commercial use is found in a tropical tree named ‘Hevea brasiliensis’ and contains polyisoprene polymer. Whereas rubber is a specific form of polymer that can flex and stretch called ‘elastomer’
However, over 70% of the rubber used in the manufacturing process nowadays is synthetic rubber. Synthetic rubber is developed through the process of polymerization, wherein the molecules are linked together in long chains. The development of synthetic rubber has continued and advanced through the years.
Manufacturing of Rubber with Steam Boilers:
Rubber arrives in processing plants in either natural or synthetic form and undergoes four processes to complete its manufacturing. These four processes are Compounding, Mixing, Shaping, and Vulcanizing. It is noteworthy that the compounding process depends on the intended product of the rubber.
Compounding is the process wherein, chemicals and additives are included to modify the rubber, depending on the final product. The chemicals added during the compounding process react with the rubber later in the vulcanization process to stabilize its polymers. Other additives used during the compounding process are Reinforcing fillers, Non-Reinforcing fillers, Color pigments, antioxidants, ozone-resistant chemicals, softening oils, and others.
Carbon black acquired from soot is one of the majorly used reinforcing fillers. It increases the strength and improves the resistance to tearing and ultraviolet depreciation of rubber. Therefore, most of the rubber products are in black.
It is important that the mixing of the additives is accomplished accurately in a rubber, which is difficult considering the high viscosity found in rubbers. Because of this, an increase in temperature is required. But, raising the temperature of rubber to 200 degrees Fahrenheit may cause premature vulcanization. To avoid such situations, mixing is achieved in two stages, in which carbon black is added first to the rubber and then followed by other chemicals and additives once the rubber gets cooled in the second stage.
Shaping of the rubber can occur in 4 different ways– calendering, casting, coating, and extrusion. The calendering process takes place by passing the rubber through a set of rolls to acquire the desired thickness. Casting occurs by dipping or casting a negative mold in a rubber bath and later dried with cross-linking. The coating is applying a coat of rubber to other materials such as tents, raincoats, etc. The extrusion process occurs by forcing plastic rubber through numerous screw extruders.
Vulcanization (also known as curing) is the final process that completes the manufacturing of rubber. Cross-linking in rubber begins from the mixing process but at an initial level. Vulcanization takes place after the process of shaping; which heats the rubber through hot steam of about 200 degrees Celsius that resultantly increases the vulcanization rate. In steam vulcanization, the processing operation takes place by direct contact of steam with the rubber. It is, therefore, essential to conduct regular treatment of the steam as the direct contact leads to its impurity. Because steam has a high vulcanization capacity, boilers must be maintained properly as per the guidance of the steam boiler manufacturer to ensure smooth running.
Rakhoh is one of the leading brands in steam boiler manufacturers. We have manufactured and installed highly efficient and sturdy boilers for many manufacturing industries by understanding their respective demands and requirements.
In the case of rubber manufacturing industries, it is prudent to ensure that the steam boiler used is:
Adaptable to the Fluctuating Demand: The steam demand in a rubber processing plant may increase or decrease various times, depending on the product. Fluctuation is one of the most faced difficulties in a rubber processing plant.
Efficient in Energy: One of the trials faced by rubber processing plants is to reduce the fuel consumption and energy output of the boiler. A boiler that generates higher steam output and demands minimum energy is ideal for rubber manufacturing.
Reduced Emission: Steam boilers should reduce greenhouse emissions and comply with sustainability are suitable for any processing units to preserve nature.
Learn more about Rakhoh’s Boilers and Services on http://www.rakhoh.com
1. Which kinds of Boilers are suitable in the Rubber Industry?
Nowadays, Water Tube Boilers are preferred over Fire Tube Boilers as they help in saving fuel and resources and ensuring longer life of boilers
2. How to know that the selected steam boiler would reduce greenhouse emissions?
Ask your steam boiler manufacturer for product rated for low CO2 emissions.
Pharmaceutical is one of the important and rapidly progressing sectors in manufacturing. The high contribution of scientists in the research and development of medicines is working towards a better quality of life globally. India’s pharmaceutical sector covers over 50% of global vaccination demand. India ranks second in the global pharmaceutical workforce and contribution. The USA is the largest importer of Indian pharmacy among 200 countries.
Pharmaceutical manufacturers utilize different equipment at different stages of drug production. The manufacturing process in pharmaceuticals consists of several stages like milling, blending, granulation, coating, drying, encapsulation, tablet pressing, and so on. To accomplish this, pharmaceutical firms require instruments such as X-ray inspection systems, capsule filling machines, tablet punching machines, and undoubtedly, boilers.
Process of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing:
The pharmaceutical processing begins with milling or decreasing the component size to the requirement of the manufactured drug and continuing with the process of combining the non-active ingredient with the active pharmaceutical ingredients to procure a solid dosage.
After milling comes the granulation process that is divided into two forms: Wet Granulation and Dry Granulation. It is a reverse of milling as it blends all the small drug particles into one large particle. This large granule consists of the ingredients in their precise amount, enhancing its compression ability for tablet formation.
Hot-melt extrusion is performed with solid oral drugs by processing it with less solubility through heat and pressure. The manufactured drug is later compressed into tablets and capsules.
Steam Boilers in Pharmaceutical Sector:
Efficient and reliable boilers are the backbone of the pharmaceutical industry. Steam boilers are crucial in the drug manufacturing industries to sterilize, purify and dry. Steam boilers are essential to ensure precision in the compiling of the components in the manufactured drug. Clean Steam or Pure Steam is of vital importance for the superior quality of the drugs produced.
Clean steam is produced from uncontaminated water that is free of additives such as amines. It is mainly because the disinfection and sterilization process must be absent of any form of contamination that may hamper the quality of the manufactured product.
Apart from these, clean steam is required for a sterile surrounding to encourage the growth of yeasts or cells. Clean steam is also required for the processing of eye or ear drop solutions.
Pharmaceutical industries generally use Solid Fuel Boilers, Oil fired Boilers, and Multi Fuel Boilers for manufacturing depending on their requirements.
Solid Fuel Boilers: Solid fuel steam boilers are effective, efficient, and economical compared to other types of boilers. Solid fuel boilers burn on fuel like wood, coal, wooden chips, briquettes, etc.
Solid fuel boilers are beneficial because of their low operating costs, range of fuel choice, and optimum efficiency. Solid fuel boilers are used for manufacturing generic medicines, IV fluids, capsule covering, and so on.
Oil fired Boilers: Oil fired boilers are an ideal choice where there is low availability of Natural Gas and Solid Fuels. Oil fired boilers are highly effective with optimal combustion and work with fuels like Light Diesel Oil, High-Speed Diesel, Furnace Oil, Low Sulphur Heavy Stock, and Industrial Diesel Oil.
In drug manufacturing, it is mainly utilized for sterilization, disinfection, and mixing components among others.
Multi fuel Boilers: As the name suggests, multi fuel boilers work with various types of fuels. Multi fuel boilers are efficient and reliable, mainly used in manufacturing products like tablets, medicinal syrups, injections, and ointments.
Importance of Safe and Reliable Boilers:
Precision and Safety is the key to successful pharmaceutical manufacturing. Although the pharmacy sector plays an important role, there can be no doubt that it has its share of challenges in manufacturing. Hot liquids, Hot surfaces, Steam, Constricted Workspace, High noise levels, and an Overly heated work area are some of the difficulties faced by workers in the manufacturing units. Working in such an environment may cause harm to skin, eyes, ears, kidneys, and lungs due to suffocation, lack of oxygen, and exposure to a high level of noise and heat. Therefore, it is essential to install and use instruments of superior quality and reliability.
India’s medical industry is growing by 15.2% yearly and may reach $25 million by 2025. Government plans to allocate $1.3 billion (Rs. 1 Lakh Crore) to encourage and increase domestic pharmaceutical manufacturing by 2023.
Rakhoh Steam Boilers in Pharmaceutical Sector:
Rakhoh has provided efficient and reliable boilers in the pharmaceutical sector. We manufacture and install solid fuel boilers such as Combo X, Optipac, and Solid Fuel Bi-Drum. Our oil fired boiler Oil Pac and Multi fuel range of boilers Bi-Drum/D Type boiler/ Power X, Membrane X, and Thermic Fluid Heater.
Some of our clients from the pharmaceutical sector include
1. Hindustan Antibiotics Limited.
2. Makson Nutrition India Private Limited
3. Marksans Pharma Limited
4. Porus Laboratories Private Limited
5. Natco Pharma Limited
6. Shashun Pharma
7. Nutra Plus Products India Limited and many others
Steam boilers, as we know, play an indispensable role in any field of industry. To run and handle any industry or processing plant is not everyone’s cup of tea. Various factors are determined and decided upon to ensure that the concerned industries are running smoothly and effectively.
Steam boiler manufacturers provide their efficient and reliable boilers to their clients but are they truly as efficient as they claim? Why is efficiency an imperative factor in choosing a boiler? And most importantly, how can we measure and determine the efficiency of the boiler? Read on to know the details which direct your decision in finding an efficient boiler.
Steam boilers are an important tool in various industries and an unarguable fact is that the initial investment in a boiler is a mere fraction of the total annual investment on its fuels. Hence it is prudent to ensure that the boiler delivers the efficiency as warranted by the steam boiler manufacturer.
Efficiency in Steam Boiler:
In a nutshell, boiler efficiency is the difference between energy input and energy output that can be calculated and indicated with percentage. The boiler efficiency depends on several factors particularly, Combustion efficiency and Thermal efficiency. It is also termed ‘fuel-to-steam efficiency’ that can assist in assessing the future fuel costs and the estimated lifespan of the boiler.
Methods to Ascertain Boiler Efficiency:
There are several ways to determine steam boiler efficiency. Different methods calculate different factors that eventually lead to boiler efficiency. In calculating boiler efficiency, a ratio varying from the standard or expected ratio indicates the need to modify the operation process or get in touch with the steam boiler manufacturer for their superior knowledge and assistance.
Combustion efficiency helps to determine the burner’s capability to burn fuels effectively by assessing the unburnt fuel and excess air present in depleting. A boiler is considered efficient if both the unburnt fuel and excess air are at lower levels.
When the boiler efficiency deviates from the desired ratio, it is advisable to assess flue gas oxygen and stack temperature because they are important factors affecting Combustion efficiency. The ideal range of Combustion efficiency of steam boilers is between 75% and 89%
Thermal efficiency assesses the efficacy of the heat exchanger that enables the transferring of the heat energy to the water or steam. Setting up of soot or water scaling, poor condition of the heat exchanging surface within the boiler results in affecting the thermal efficiency negatively, which, in turn, lowers the overall efficiency of the steam boiler.
Fuel-to-Steam Efficiency or Fuel-to-Water Efficiency:
Fuel-to-Steam efficiency or Fuel-to-Water efficiency (also referred to as ‘Boiler efficiency’ or even Thermal Efficiency) determines the overall efficiency of the boiler. It differs slightly from thermal efficiency by calculating not only the effectiveness of the heat exchanger but also the radiation and convection losses.
The optimum score for fuel-to-steam efficiency ranges from 80% to 85% and acts as the indicator for the overall boiler efficiency.
Factors Affecting the Boiler Efficiency:
Many factors contribute to the efficient performance of a boiler. It is imperative to understand them while assessing the boiler efficiency and take appropriate actions or contacting the steam boiler manufacturer in due course to ensure better efficiency and longer lifespan of the boilers.
Some of the factors that affect the efficiency of steam boilers are:
Flue Gas Temperature:
Flue gas temperature refers to the temperature of the combustion gases when they exit the boiler. In simple words, high flue gas temperature indicates that the heat is being lost during the process. It means that the efficiency of the boiler is below the desired range.
Stack temperature is an ideal indicator of boiler efficiency. The stack temperature refers to the temperature of the combustion gas (both dry flue gas and water vapor) exiting the boiler. It demonstrates the heat which did not transfer from the fuel to the water or steam, thus indicating the effectiveness of the heat exchanger. It displays the fuel-to-steam efficiency of the boiler
Radiation and Convection Losses:
Radiation and Convection losses in a steam boiler are inevitable as they are the heat losses that radiate from the boiler vessel. The amount of radiation and convection losses varies due to the factors such as boiler size, boiler type, operating pressure, and air velocity across the boiler. Such factors have an undeniable influence on radiation and convection loss. But ultimately, every boiler faces some type of heat loss that radiates in the boiler vessel.
Ambient Air Temperature:
Ambient air temperature considerably affects the efficiency of boilers. The temperature of the combustion air emerging in the boiler is known as ambient air. To understand this better, a 40 degrees Fahrenheit can vary the boiler efficiency by 1% or more that may have a far-reaching influence on the operations of the steam boilers.
Turndown indicates the capability of the boiler to attain a wide range of output (low to high). Therefore, a higher turndown implies a wide range of output ability of the boiler. Boilers achieving a high turndown ratio can supply steam at lower rates without restarting or shutting down. It shows that when demand load fluctuates, higher turndown can facilitate efficiency improvements.
Fuel specification plays a key role in determining the efficiency of the boiler. Let us consider the example of gaseous fuels as they contain high hydrogen content resulting in high water vapor during combustion. It leads to high vapor loss and low efficiency. That is the reason for oil-fired boilers offering higher efficiency as compared to boilers burning on gaseous fuels.
Tips to Increase Boiler Efficiency:
One has to calculate and determine the factors that are hindering the higher efficiency of boilers. There are several ways to improve the efficiency of the boiler by taking some appropriate and well-timed action:
1.0Installing a Flue Gas Economizer to assist in recovering the surplus heat
2.Improving Boiler Insulation to reduce the radiation and convection losses
3.Recovering heat from boiler blowdown
4.Cleaning and regular servicing of boiler internals
5.Retrofit or Upgrade Boiler Burners or Components
6.Adopt and Practice Preventive Maintenance
7.Contact Steam Boiler Manufacturer for regular service check
Rakhoh Boilers are a leading and trustworthy steam boiler manufacturer committed to designing, manufacturing, and installing highly efficient and reliable boilers for our clients. Our expert and dedicated staff install and upgrade boilers. Along with manufacturing and installing boilers, we provide excellent and cost-effective retrofit and upgrading services to ensure long-lasting, highly efficient, and durable steam boilers.
As India progresses in industries and manufacturing, it also witnesses a steady increase in the pollution level. Although pollution is caused due to various reasons, one of the main contributors to pollution is industrial waste. With the hazardous consequences of industrial disposal, the best course of action for industries is to opt for pollution control equipment to minimize the harm.
The government of India has taken several steps to monitor and tackle the problem of accelerating industrial emissions like Online Continuous Emissions/Effluents Monitoring Systems (OCEMS). This monitoring system monitors and regulates the emission of particulate matter (PM), SO2 (sulfur dioxide), NOx (nitrogen oxide), CO (carbon monoxide), and fluoride. A study reveals that, on average, an Indian inhales up to 25 micrograms/cubic meter of toxic air in 24 hours, which is substantially higher than the World Health Organization’s maximum limit of 10 micrograms/cubic meter. It may cause severe damage to the lungs and the overall health with respiratory diseases, cancer, strokes, deafness, blindness, and other illnesses.
To control and maintain the level of pollution industries can avail themselves of various types of pollution control equipment. In the case of industrial steam boilers, one of them is cyclone dust collectors.
Cyclone dust collectors, as the name suggests, collect the excess dust particles from the boilers. It gained its initial recognition in the 1950s and has been serving its purpose since then with various advancements and modifications in design and structure. Cyclone dust collector uses centrifugal force instead of any specific moving parts to segregate the particulates like ash or other larger pollutants from the flue gases in the boiler. Cyclone dust collectors are classified into two types: Single Cyclone Dust Collector and Multi Cyclone Dust Collector.
Single Cyclone Dust Collector:
Single cyclone dust collector is one of the most basic and commonly used types of dust collector. It uses inertia and centrifugal force to separate dust particles from the exhausts in the boilers. Factors such as the size of particles, gas temperature, pressure, sticky dust particles, and moisture content are considered while manufacturing single cyclone dust collectors.
It is located before the dust filters, positioned near the vacuum pump in the system. The air starts spinning in a cyclonic motion as it pulls through the dust collector chamber towards the vacuum pump at high speed. The centrifugal force due to the high speed and cyclonic airflow steers the heavy particles and dust towards the cyclone chamber wall. As these particles hit the chamber, it loses velocity and falls in the bin or hopper placed under the cyclone dust collector.
Advantages of Single Cyclone Dust Collector:
2. Economical and Easy to Maintain
3. Requires less footprint
4. Reduces the amount of dust and minimizes pollution
Multi Cyclone Dust Collector:
Multi Cyclone Dust Collector is the emerging and extensively preferred pollution control equipment in the industries. It uses centrifugal force, gravity settling, and inertia, forming a dual vortex to collect particulates. The efficiency of multi cyclone dust collectors depends on various factors like air temperature, moisture content, type of dust (stick, combustible, and abrasive), size of the particles, etc.
Multi Cyclone Dust Collector consists of numerous cyclones of small diameter that work collectively. It works by creating a downward and an inner whirling. When the gas enters the cyclonic collector, it accords with a whirling and cyclonic motion. This motion gives rise to the centrifugal force that directs the dust particles towards the walls of the collecting tubes. The particles fall at the bottom and are released from the system.
Multi Cyclone Dust Collectors are more effective pollution control equipment as compared with Single Cyclone Dust Collectors due to their small and long diameter that helps with better separation and collecting of dust.
Advantages of Multi Cyclone Dust Collector:
1. Effective Cleansing because of multiple cyclones
2. Minimal Erosion and Air Pollution
3. High-performance and Efficiency of Boiler
4. Cost-effective and Less Maintenance
5. Smooth Operation
Although cyclone dust collectors are excellent pollution control equipment that helps to optimize boiler efficiency, it is equally vital to look for the maintenance and efficiency of dust collectors. If overlooked, it might hamper its functioning, which, in turn, would reduce the boiler efficiency and increase the harmful emissions. Some of the factors that affect cyclone dust collector efficiency are:
Diameter and Height of Cyclone:
The diameter of the cyclone must be optimal in size. While a small-sized diameter ensures greater centrifugal force and consequently higher efficiency; However, too small-sized a diameter might lower the efficiency due to the inability to collect the finer dust particles.
Air intake surface:
Since air intake is a crucial component of a dust collector, it greatly affects its efficiency. In other words, the smaller the air intake surfaces with high velocity, the greater the dust removal efficiency.
Speed of inlet wind:
The optimal range of inlet wind speed must be between 12 to 25 m/s. Speed below 12 m/s results in a drop in dust collector efficiency and higher than 25 m/s would result in increased resistance loss rather than efficiency that would resultantly increase the energy consumption.
As the temperature of gases increases, so does their viscosity. That results in a rise of centripetal force, hindering the separation and ultimately reducing the dust collector efficiency.
Rakhoh’s Range of Pollution Control Equipment:
Rakhoh Boilers are one of the leading boiler manufacturers in Pune and one of the trusted names in boiler suppliers in India. Since our inception in 1983, we have aimed for advancement and sustainability by delivering efficient industrial steam boilers and high-quality dust collectors. Rakhoh’s Trimax Type Single Cyclone Dust Collectors and Multi Cyclone Dust Collectors are efficient, reliable, and easy to maintain. We manufacture boiler accessories and pollution control equipment to ensure higher efficiency and the life cycle of boilers. Rakhoh also provides boiler-related services such as annual contract maintenance, training programs, automation and control systems, energy audit, etc.
Manufacturers of Boilers keep in mind to produce highly effective and durable boilers for the associated industries. Steam Boilers play a significant role in almost every processing sector. With the use of steam boilers, processing has become more efficient, reliable, and swift. Steam boilers are therefore unarguably one of the most important units in any processing plant. Boilers work by heating the water by burning fuels which generate steam of the desired temperature.
Steam boilers are used in various manufacturing industries such as pharmaceuticals, chemicals, paper, textile, distilleries, etc. They are also used to generate power through turbines or engines. Therefore, the manufacturers of boilers ensure that boilers produced by them are efficient and reliable as per the requirement.
However, along with operating steam boilers, it is equally or perhaps more important to regulate and maintain their safety measures. Neglecting the precautions may result in boiler shut down, boiler explosion, and fatal accidents and injuries in the process plants and the staff. Unmaintained steam boilers can be as dangerous as an explosive bomb. Regardless of the sturdy and sophisticated quality assured by the manufacturers of boilers, it is necessary to regularly maintain and inspect them to avoid any accidents or fatalities.
Although steam boiler failures can occur due to many factors, some most commonly found negligence that brings threat to the functioning of the steam boiler are:
Low Water Level: In many of the steam boiler failures, the main cause found is that the water level was lower than what was predetermined by the manufacturers of boilers. To understand this better, let us consider a Solid fuel boiler or a Multi fuel boiler that produces steam by boiling the water-burning fuels. The furnace made of steel can withstand high temperatures because of the presence of water. At this stage, if the level of water is less than expected, the steel tubes continue to get hotter, and after a point, fail in their mechanical energy. It may result in a breakdown or some catastrophic failure or mishap.
Feed Water Quality: The quality of feedwater is an important factor to consider while injecting it into steam boilers. Poor quality of feed water may cause a breakdown in boilers. It must be noted that the use of feed water is unique in different types of boilers and manufacturing units. If the feed water contains excess sediments, it may cause interference in the process of filtration that, in turn, causes a layer of the solid sediments to form on the piping. It causes overheating in the internal tubes that ultimately leads to breakdown or explosion in the steam boilers. Such explosions cause excessive heat in the manufacturing plants, and the oxygen level is reduced tremendously, making it highly dangerous for the concerned personnel.
Fuel Combustion Explode: It is common knowledge that combustion in steam boilers takes place after fuels are burned. Therefore, it is essential to check the internal burner of the boiler. Manufacturers of boilers suggest that regular assessment and servicing of the boilers are necessary. Oversight in fuel-burning or faulty gas lines can lead to dangerous blasts of gas leakages.
Improper Blowdown: The process of reducing the number of unrequired solids in the boiler is possible through feedwater and blowdown. The blowdown process helps in maintaining the solid aggregation in the solid fuel boiler or multi-fuel boiler as per their requirement. This solid aggregation includes suspended solids, dissolved solids, alkaline, and silica. A high level of blowdown is required as the operating of the boiler progresses. However, if the water level remains high due to improper blowdown, it may cause the formation of sediments, excess moisture because of foaming, corrosion, and poor quality of steam. At such an occurrence, the solids and silica are carried with the steam. It results in the formation of sludge and silica in internal parts of the boiler like the turbine and superheater. This formation, along with the high temperature may cause instability or shut down of boilers.
Precautions to Follow for Boiler Safety:
Certain precautions can prevent incidents of explosive boilers. Regardless of the boilers being solid fuel boilers or multi-fuel boilers, manufacturers of boilers advise following some steps to maintain safety and stability in the processing industry.
1. Regular checking of the boilers and their accessories to examine any potential faults or danger
2. Inspect if there are any leakages of steam, water, or flue gases from any part of the boilers
3. Cleaning of the part that is moveable or unfixed
4. Ensure that the water is treated before feeding it to the boiler
5. Follow the safety manual provided by the manufacturer of the boiler
6. Train and Educate the operating staff about the safety precautions while using a boiler
Rakhoh boilers have successfully provided and installed various types of boilers to their clients over the years. We provide Solid fuel boilers, Multi fuel boilers, oil fired boilers, and so on. We assure you that our boilers are of top-notch quality and safety. We also provide our services with regular servicing, maintenance, repair, and upgrading in boilers. Rakhoh boilers have always placed efficiency and safety as our utmost priority.
Boilers are of vital importance in the running of any sector of industry. Boiler manufacturers take utmost care while manufacturing them to ensure that they are highly efficient and durable for their respective clients. However, boiler manufacturers in India and the world advise keeping a check on some commonly found problems found in boilers that may prove threatening towards the efficiency of boilers.
Rakhoh Boilers design, manufacture, and install highly efficient and sturdy boilers in various processing plants and industries for over 30 years. As a leading boiler manufacturer in India, Rakhoh provides top-notch quality boilers and boiler-related services to their clients. Despite that, there are problems that industrial boilers face if they are not checked or maintained regularly.
Here are 5 majorly found problems in Industrial Boiler:
When the water is not separate from the mixture of steam and water, the contaminant of the solid, liquid or gaseous fuels leaves the boiler drum along with the steam that results in carry-over. It may not seem to pose a serious threat, but it affects the steam performance of the boiler, especially in steam traps, turbine blades, and valve bodies.
Some of the reasons that cause Carry-Over are:
The three-element drum control level has introduced the design of smaller diameter drums. The diameter of the drum should be such that the distance between the water-steam interface and driers is appropriate to avoid carry-over.
A high level of a contaminant in feed water leads to a high level of carry-over in the boiler. Feedwater containing dissolved oxygen results in generating iron oxide, consequently releasing increased iron in boiler water and high carry-over.
An increase in steam demand leads to lower drum pressure. It results in a phenomenon called priming. Due to priming, slugs of water are carried along with steam resulting in high carry-over.
Low steam pressure increases the steam volume inside the boiler. It results in the steam velocity in the internals being at a lower pressure which causes hindrance in the separation of water droplets from steam, resulting in carry-over.
Solutions to Avoid Carry-over:
Proper Feed Water Treatment
Ensure Water Levels are Low
Avoid any external material leakage in the feed water of the boiler
Seek the guidance of boiler manufacturer on boiler and feed water treatment
Corrosion in boilers destroys the boiler metal due to the pitting of dissolved oxygen in the boiler water. It results in deep holes or penetrations through the metal of the boilers that may affect the overall performance of the boiler and reduces the boiler life.
Some of the main reasons for corrosion are:
Presence of Oxygen in Boiler Water:
When the water is heated, the dissolved oxygen starts to release and reacts with the iron metal of the boiler. It forms ferric oxide or Rust that leads to corrosion.
Presence of Carbon Dioxide in Water:
Similar to the presence of oxygen, corrosion results due to the carbon dioxide in the boiler water.
Negligence towards Maintenance:
One of the reasons for corrosion is neglecting regular maintenance and servicing of boilers. Corrosion, if overlooked, may cause consequences like boiler explosion.
Solutions to Avoid Corrosion:
Ensuring ventilation under high temperature and vacuum conditions
Adding Sodium Sulphite or Sodium Sulphide
Regular Checking and Maintenance by Boiler Manufacturer
Foaming in a boiler occurs when the steam bubbles are gathered from the generated steam rising through the water in the boiler. When left unchecked, it forms deposits in the tubes in the boiler leading to their failure. Foaming decreases the efficiency of boilers and causes fluctuations, contaminations, and scaling in the boiler.
Some of the main reasons for Foaming are:
The formations of small bubbles on the water surface are difficult to get rid of. It leads to foaming in the boiler.
Presence of Alkalis and Oils:
The presence of chemicals such as alkalis and oils with the solid elements in the boiler water react and produce foam. It reduces the surface tension of water and increases foaming.
The oiling or lubrication in boilers serves as one of the primary reasons for foaming in boilers.
Solutions to Avoid Foaming:
Proper treatment of water and removal of oil or alkalis from it before feeding it in the boiler
Neutralizing the surface tension by using anti-foaming means such as castor oil
Removal of oil traces by introducing sodium aluminates
When the droplets of water are carried away along with steam during the steam production in the boiler, it results in the formation of ‘wet steam’. It is known as ‘Priming’ that reduces the energy efficiency of the steam and leads to deposits of salt crystals in turbines and superheaters. It reduces the lifespan of the boilers and the boiler components.
Some of the main reasons for Priming are:
Higher Water Level:
Excessive water level leads to its releasing along with steam which in turn results in high carry-over.
Steam Pressure below Boiler design:
It is essential to adjust the boiler steam pressure as per the design made by the boiler manufacturer. Lower steam pressure results in a higher level of priming.
Oily components in the boiler water:
The presence of oil in the boiler water results in forming of foam and the water gets released through steam.
Solutions to Avoid Priming:
Filtering of water before feeding it to the boiler
Blow-down of the sediments from the boiler
Ensuring a low level of salts in the boiler water
Scaling is caused by the formation of contaminated water on heat transferring surfaces of the boiler. It hampers the heat transfer. Scaling results in the higher use of fuel than is usually required to produce steam. Scaling may lead to up to a 20% decrease in the efficiency of the boiler.
The most primary reason for Scaling is:
Hard Water in Boiler:
The presence of calcium and magnesium salts (carbonates or sulfates) or higher concentration of silica as to the alkalinity of the boiler water causes scaling in the boiler.
Solutions to Avoid Scaling:
Blow-down operations can assist in the removal of scales that are found on the surface of the boiler.
Chemical treatment such as Calcium Sulphate along with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid aids in removing hard scales
Brittle scales can be removed through thermal operations.
It is important to maintain and upgrade your industrial boiler to ensure its proper functioning. Seek the expert advice of your boiler manufacturer to know the best methods to prevent any service disruption of the boilers. Boiler manufacturers in India as well as throughout the world suggest regular servicing and upgrading of boilers. Boiler manufacturers believe that the proper maintenance of the boilers leads to an up to 90% increase in boiler efficiency.
Rakhoh Boilers with their expertise of more than 38 years are a leading boiler manufacturer in India for industrial steam boiler and providing excellent and timely boiler services like boiler retrofit and upgrades, energy audit, steam trap assessment, plant maintenance, customer training program and much more
As we are aware, combustion is a necessary process to generate steam in a boiler. Regardless of the type of fuel used (solid, liquid, gaseous), the presence of three elements: Fuel, Heat, and Air are undeniable for the proper combustion process. Boiler manufacturers in India and the world use Mechanical Draught Fans to facilitate the air requirement in the boiler to ensure an appropriate combustion process. Steam boiler mainly utilizes Forced Draft Fan (FD Fans) or Induced Draft Fans (ID Fans) in their operations.
Forced Draft Fan and Induced Draft Fan are both commonly termed as Centrifugal Fan or Centrifugal Boilers. The main difference between both the fans is that the Forced Draft Fan pushes air into the furnace for combustion while the Induced Draft Fan pulls the flue gases out of the steam boiler after the combustion process. Forced Draft Fans are found at the inlet of a boiler as they push high-pressure air in the combustion chamber, whereas Induced Draft Fans are located at the outlet of the boiler between dust collector and chimney.
Forced Draft Fans:
The primary function of Forced Draft Fans is to supply air for combustion in steam boilers. FD Fans create air pressure mechanically in the combustion chamber of a boiler.
One of the most preferred ways of accumulating more energy through combustion with solid fuels is through the process of fluidized bed combustion. However, this process would be unsuccessful without a Forced Draft Fan. The occurrence of fluidization is possible solely due to the Forced Draft Fan. FD Fans supply adequate pressurized air as per the weight of the bed and the quantity of fuel that aids in creating fluidization of the sand in the furnace of the boiler.
It is essential to calculate the pressure head as well as the quantity of air supplied for combustion.
In some cases, Secondary Air Fan fulfills the demand for excess air required for the process of complete combustion. Primary Air Fan and Secondary Air Fan both fall under Forced Draft Fan and are often installed together in a steam boiler. However, they both operate at varying flow levels and head generation.
Induced Draft Fans:
The primary function of Induced Draft Fans in a boiler is the suction or creating negative pressure to dispense the flue gases or air from the system.
Induced Draft Fans or ID Fans removes flue gases from the combustion chambers and creates a vacuum of negative air pressure with a blower to suck the air out of the combustion chamber. These air or flue gases are discharged from the boiler through a stack or chimney.
Induced Draft Fans ensures the regulation of pressure in the steam boiler and paves the way for the combustion process in the boiler by dispensing the flue gases from the boiler.
Notwithstanding the many benefits of Induced Draft Fan in a boiler, since ID Fans are capable of handling hot flue gases, they face a drawback of frequent corrosion and erosion in the steam boilers.
Difference between Forced Draft Fan and Induced Draft Fan:
Apart from the push and pull function in FD Fans and ID Fans, there are some noteworthy differences in these two centrifugal fans.
Forced Draft Fans require less power whereas, Induced Draft Fans require more. The pressure within flue gases is somewhat more than atmospheric pressure in FD Fans while, in ID Fans, the pressure within flue gases is a bit less. The flow of flue gases is more uniform in the Forced Draft Fans and less uniform in Induced Draft Fans. Lastly, the risk of fire in case of any kind of leakages is high with Forced Draft Fans whereas, there is no danger of fire through leakages in Induced Draft Fans.
The Collateral Relation between Boilers and Centrifugal Fans:
Although it is a well-known fact that Forced Draft Fans and Induced Draft Fans work together to ensure proper combustion and thereby the overall operation of a steam boiler, the performance and load on the FD Fans and ID Fans depend on the maintenance of the boiler. In simple words, Clinker formation in the boiler mightily affects the functioning of FD and ID Fans.
Clinkers or slag consist of the non-combustible minerals and elements found in fuel that fuse and melt together to form lumps. It either falls on the floor or sticks to the wall of the boiler. When clinkers are gathered in large amount in the pass of the flue gases, it obstructs the air passage and creates back pressure. It results in the FD and ID fans working harder to maintain the expected draught pressure. Clinkers increase the FD and ID fans consumption and reduce the heat transfer area by settling on the boiler tubes.
Boiler manufacturer in India and the world have noticed that the most common reason for clinker formation in the boilers are due to the usage of inferior quality of fuels and neglect in maintenance of the furnace. The fuel does not burn completely when the air-to-fuel ratio in the boiler is incorrect. These unburnt particles fuse with the high-temperature zones of the boiler that result in the formation of clinkers.
Rakhoh Boilers is a leading and trusted boiler manufacturer in India. With our 38 years of expertise in manufacturing high-end and efficient boilers, we understand the needs and demands of the industry. Along with boiler manufacturing, we deliver excellent services such as Steam System Solution, Energy Audits, Boiler Automation, Annual Maintenance Contract, Customer Training Programme, and many others for our clients.
Know more about us at http:www.rakhoh.com