Rice is a staple food and the second most important crop in the world. India ranks second after China and accounts for 21% of the world’s total rice consumption, and is one of the leading producers of white and brown rice globally. The Rice industry plays a significant role in the national economy by contributing to 25% of the global market share in rice exportation. In the year 2020-21, India has witnessed tremendous growth in rice exportation (non-basmati) by 132% and globally exporting rice worth 30,277 crores. India is a leading nation in supplying basmati rice globally with a 24% market share.
History of Rice Mills in India:
Rice mills are one of the ancient and largest agro-processing industries in India. The significance of the agro-processing sector first came into light in 1870 after the famine in Bengal. However, it witnessed rapid growth by the 1980s during the Green Revolution that stressed the importance of agricultural production and management. It resulted in the development of the agro-processing industry that was led by rice mills and followed by wheat milling, milk and dairy products, and so on.
In 1976, an amendment to the Rice Mill Industry Regulation Provision implemented modernization of the single-huller mills by including centrifugal de-huskers, separators, and paddy cleaners.
Types of Rice Mills and their Modernization:
Generally, most of the rice mills in India are traditional, huller-type process units. Although modernized rice mills are highly efficient, it requires considerable capital investment to begin with. However, small modern rice mills are gradually developing that are efficient and cost-effective. Other types of rice mills commonly found are sheller mills and huller-cum-sheller mills.
Process Stages in Rice Industry:
Milling is considered one of the most vital processing operations once the rice production is accomplished as it separates hulls and barns from the paddy grains to produce polished rice. Rice is the primary product obtained from paddy, which is further processed to derive secondary products. Apart from milling, the process operations in the rice industry include:
- Paddy Separation Whitening
- Weighing and Packaging
Role of Boilers in Rice Mills:
Steam is essential in various process operations in the rice industry. Therefore, boilers for rice mills must be efficient, reliable, and of sturdy quality to ensure seamless productivity. Boilers in a rice mill are required for various operations such as parboiling, paddy separation whitening, and packaging. Boilers in rice mills are also utilized for power generation.
The parboiling process, for example, is a hydrothermal treatment that involves soaking paddy in water and later steamed to ensure that the rice gets harder and retains as much oil content in the bran. Parboiling is performed through various methods such as single steaming, double steaming, hot water soaking, and steaming. Traditional rice mills usually adopt single steaming or double steaming methods for parboiling, whereas modern mills prefer hot water soaking, followed by drying the paddy in mechanical driers.
Rakhoh Boilers are one of the renowned names as leading boiler manufacturers in many rice mills in India. Rakhoh is the preferred choice among many process industries, including Rice Mills, with a wide range of efficient and reliable steam boilers. Our Huskon model is ideal for mills that utilize rice husk or coffee husk as fuel with an automated fuel feeding system and special ferrules to prevent husk ash in smoke tubes. It is equipped with Air Pre Heater, Water Pre Heater, and Multi Cyclone Dust Collector to enhance efficiency and productivity.
Boilers in rice mills are also essential for the whitening of rice and its packaging operations as well as, for the further process of rice products.
Factors to consider while selecting a boiler for rice mills:
- Boiler Capacity and Heating Load
- Pressure and Temperature Load of the Boiler
- High Thermal Efficiency
- Effective Combustion and Low Emission
By-product in Rice Industries:
Brown rice extracted from organically grown paddy has more market and nutritional value. Brown rice needs to be milled in a rubber roll sheller to remove the husk and paddy separation.
Puffed rice is obtained by promptly immersing the sand roasted paddy in water, draining of water, drying, and milling. The polished rice is introduced with salt solution, sugar, soda salt, and puffed in the sand medium.
Flaked rice is produced by roasting soaked paddy and flaked in edge runner or roller flakes.
From a nutritional perspective, broken rice is the same as whole rice but with a low market cost. Therefore, broken rice or its flour is utilized for preparing dishes made of rice.
Rice Bran Oil:
Rice bran oil is gaining popularity in India as a healthy alternative for edible oil. Compared to the traditional edible oil, it is more economical as it absorbs 20% to 25% less oil.
Rice husk contains 50% cellulose, 20% silica, and 30% lignin, making it an excellent industrial fuel. India produces approximately 90 to 120 million tons of rice paddy annually.
Challenges faced in Rice Industry:
- Out Turn Ratio
- Milling Charges
- Minimum Support Price
- Lack of Infrastructural Facilities
- Lack of Advanced Technological Equipment